Understanding how to address social determinants of health with Laura Gottlieb

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These days, we hear about social determinants of health constantly – more of us are screening for social needs in our clinics and payers are searching for effective ways to address them as an avenue to improve outcomes and ideally reduce costs. Dr. Laura Gottlieb, a family physician and researcher at UCSF joins us today to talk about her research, which focuses on evaluating interventions to identify and address social factors in health care.

You can find many of Dr. Gottlieb’s publications here, as well as the Health Affairs blog post by Drs. Toyin Ajayi and Iyah Romm mentioned in the podcast. You can also use this link to the SIREN website to find more resources on the intersection of social and medical care.

A little more about our guest: Dr. Gottlieb is Associate Professor of Family and Community Medicine at the University of California, San Francisco and director of the Social Interventions Research and Evaluation Network (SIREN). Dr. Gottlieb’s current research focuses on evaluating interventions that identify and address social factors as part of health care delivery. These interventions include volunteer-powered social services Help Desks, payment reforms that support social programs, and other efforts that support responding to patients’ social needs in medical practice, like re-designing electronic medical records to incorporate social determinants data. Dr. Gottlieb also is an Associate Director of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Evidence for Action National Program and was a co-founder of HealthBegins, a non-profit organization providing education, consulting, networking, and technology services to health care providers interested in joining the effort to move medicine upstream. Prior to her current appointment, Dr. Gottlieb was a Robert Wood Johnson Health and Society Scholar at UCSF/UCB. She completed her MD at Harvard Medical School and both her MPH and residency training at the University of Washington.

If you enjoyed the show, please give us 5 stars wherever you listen. Tweet us your thoughts @RoSpodcast and leave us a message on our facebook page at www.facebook.com/reviewofsystems. Or, you can email me at audrey@rospod.org. We’d love to hear from you, and thanks for listening.

This interview has been lightly edited for length and clarity. Photo courtesy of Dr. Gottlieb.

Journal Club Lightning Round: evidence based policy and vaccine rates, municipal non-health spending and health rankings, and is less really more?

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For this week’s journal club, David, Thomas, and Audrey bring listeners short overviews of three articles. Audrey discusses an article published in the journal Pediatrics Dec 18 2017, called Exemptions from Mandatory Immunization After Legally Mandated Parental Counseling by Saad Omer, Kristen Allen, DH Chang, Beryl Guterman, Robert Bednarczyk, Alex Jordan, Alison Buttenheim, Malia Jones, Claire Hannan, Patricia deHart, and Daniel Salmon. David chats about the Dec 14, 2017 commentary published in New England Journal of Medicine by Dr. Lisa Rosenbaum entitled The Less is More Crusade – Are we Overmedicalizing or Oversimplifying. And Thomas shares a Health Affairs article, Government spending health and nonhealth sectors associated with improvement in county health rankings, published in their November 2016 issue.

If you enjoy the show, please give us 5 stars wherever you listen. Tweet us your thoughts @RoSpodcast and leave us a message on our facebook page at www.facebook.com/reviewofsystems. Or, you can email me at audrey@rospod.org. We’d love to hear from you, and thanks for listening.

Nwando Olayiwola – primary care, tech, and leadership

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How can we use tech to make healthcare better and more accessible? Dr. Nwando Olayiwola, a family physician, faculty member at UCSF, and Chief Clinical Transformation Officer for RubiconMD, a leading provider of electronic consultations between primary care and specialty care providers, has spent many years thinking about that question. She joins us this week to tell us about her career in primary care, tech, and leadership. We also discuss her powerful essay, Racism in Medicine: Shifting the Power, and her research looking at various aspects of tech and care delivery.

Thank you to the Harvard Center for primary care for helping to facilitate this interview. I did make a few recording snafus on this interview – so my apologies for the sub-optimal audio quality in a few sections.

A little more about our guest: Dr. Nwando Olayiwola is a family physician and the inaugural Chief Clinical Transformation Officer for RubiconMD, a leading provider of electronic consultations between primary care and specialty care providers. She is also currently an Associate Clinical Professor in the Department of Family and Community Medicine at University of California, San Francisco. She served as the Director of the UCSF Center for Excellence in Primary Care until February 2017. In that role, she supported the Center in achieving strategic objectives around primary care transformation and systems redesign regionally, nationally and internationally. Prior to her work at UCSF, Dr. Olayiwola served as the Chief Medical Officer of the largest Federally Qualified Health Center system in Connecticut, Community Health Center, Inc. (CHCI), where she developed expertise in medical administration, translational and implementation research, professional development, systems based and quality improvement and practice transformation of twelve primary care practices into Patient-Centered Medical Homes. Her work led to CHCI being one of the first organizations in the United States to receive both the NCQA Level 3 PCMH and Joint Commission PCMH Recognitions. She has been a leader in harnessing technology to increase access to care for underserved and disenfranchised populations and is an expert in the areas of health systems reform, practice transformation, health information technology and primary care redesign. She is on the advisory board of Primary Care Progress and the Robert Graham Center for Family Medicine and Primary Care Policy.

If you enjoyed the show, please give us 5 stars wherever you listen. Tweet us your thoughts @RoSpodcast and leave us a message on our facebook page at www.facebook.com/reviewofsystems. Or, you can email me at audreyATrospod.org. We’d love to hear from you, and thanks for listening.

This interview has been edited for length and clarity.

Reprise – Population Health Management with Dave Chokshi

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This week, we are joined by Dave Chokshi. Dave is the Chief Population Health Officer of OneCity Health and Senior Assistant Vice President at New York City Health + Hospitals—the largest public health care system in the U.S. He practices primary care at Bellevue Hospital and is a Clinical Associate Professor of Population Health and Medicine at the NYU School of Medicine.

We talk about what population health is, how it is distinct from public health, and what value it adds to our healthcare system. We also talk about how in some ways it might contribute to the erosion of relationships between primary care providers and patients, how that can be remedied, and how the small 1 or 2 doctor practice may fit into a population health management vision. We talk about a piece he wrote with Neil Calman and Diane Hauser about what they call the “expanded denominator,” and how that may further goals of public health and accountable care. Lastly, we talk about population health approaches in urban and rural settings, and how we should think about the opioid epidemic from a population health vantage point.

We reference a few articles throughout our conversation: Christine Sinsky’s already classic Annals paper detailing that physicians spend two hours on administrative tasks for every hour they see patients, and our journal club on that paper. Robin Williams’ and colleagues Health Affairs blog on utilizing the HIV cascade of care to battle the opioid epidemic, and Lawrence Casalino and colleagues work calculating what we spend measuring the care we provide. In addition, we reference the Surgeon General Vivek Murthy’s landmark report on addiction.

A quick note about a word we use frequently but didn’t pause to define for listeners – attribution. Attribution is the assignment of a specific patient to a specific primary care physician in a health system. Once a patient is attributed to a PCP or health system, that PCP and health system is held accountable for the patient’s quality measures and healthcare costs within ACOs or other alternative payment contracts. This still applies patients who do not frequently access the healthcare system through traditional channels or most frequently see specialists, who perhaps have never seen the assigned PCP, and is therefore at times controversial.

A little more background on Dr. Dave Chokshi: He was Assistant Vice President of Ambulatory Care Transformation at NYC Health + Hospitals and director of Population Health Improvement at NYU School of Medicine. In 2012-13, he served as a White House Fellow at the U.S. Dept. of Veterans Affairs, where he was the principal health advisor in the Office of the Secretary. His prior work experience spans the public, private, and nonprofit sectors, including positions with the New York City and State Departments of Health, the Louisiana Department of Health, a startup clinical software company, and the nonprofit Universities Allied for Essential Medicines, where he was a founding member of the Board of Directors.

If you enjoy the show, please rate and review us wherever you listen, and share us on social media. Tweet us your thoughts @rospodcast and check out our facebook page at www.facebook.com/reviewofsystems. Or, you can email me at audreyATrospod.org. We’d love to hear from you, and thanks for listening.

Reprise – How does architectural design influence c-section rates? With Mass Design & Ariadne Labs

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This episode starts with a question: “what if the architectural design of an obstetric unit influenced the c-section rate in that unit?”

That question occurred to obstetrician/gynecologist Neel Shah when he attended a presentation by Michael Murphy, the co-founder and executive director of Mass Design, an architectural design and research firm that focuses particularly on healthcare architecture. Neel thinks about c-section rates all the time and is a leading researcher in the field of maternal health. C-section rates vary widely throughout the US – from 7 to 70%, and where a woman delivers better predicts whether she will get a c-section than her own personal risk factors. So, Michael Murphy’s contention that “Architecture is never neutral. It either heals or hurts” stayed with Neel and inspired him to pursue a research initiative between Mass Design and his research group, Ariadne Labs.

Neel Shah and two of his collaborators, Amie Shao and Deb Rosenberg, researchers and architects with Mass Design, join us to talk about their collaboration and the report they produced.

Amie Shao is a director with MASS Design Group, where she oversees research focusing on health infrastructure planning and evaluation. In addition to guiding impact research for MASS built projects, she coordinated the production of National Health Infrastructure Standards for the Liberian Ministry of Health and has been involved in the design and evaluation of healthcare facilities in Haiti, Africa, and the United States. Deb Rosenberg joined MASS in 2015, with a unique background in healthcare and architecture. Throughout her career in nursing and architecture is a common ambition to promote health and well-being, and she believes that the spaces where people live, work and heal have the capacity to greatly support or restrict our human potential. Neel Shah, MD, MPP, is Assistant Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology at Harvard Medical School, and director of the Delivery Decisions Initiative at Ariadne Labs. His team is currently collaborating with hospitals across the United States, and using methods from design, systems engineering, and management to reduce the epidemic of avoidable c-sections.

If you enjoyed the show, please give us 5 stars wherever you listen. Tweet us your thoughts @RoSpodcast and check out our facebook page at www.facebook.com/reviewofsystems. Or, you can email us at audreyATrospod.org. We’d love to hear from you, and thanks for listening.

This interview has been lightly edited for length and clarity.

Can CHW support improve outcomes for patients with multiple chronic diseases? Kangovi et al, Journal Club

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Thomas Kim, David Rosenthal, and Audrey Provenzano discuss a recent article from the American Journal of Public Health called Community Health Worker Support for Disadvantaged Patients with Multiple Chronic Diseases: A Randomized Controlled Trial, by Shreya Kangovi, Nandita Mitra, David Grande, Hairong Huo, Robyn Smith, and Judith Long. This important work comes from researchers associated with the Penn Center for Community Health Workers. You can find more about the research here, and more about Dr. Kangovi, the lead researcher on the study, here. Dr. Kangovi also recently penned an article in Stat News reflecting on the meaning of her research, which you can find here

If you enjoy the show, please give us 5 stars wherever you listen. Tweet us your thoughts @RoSpodcast and leave us a message on our facebook page at www.facebook.com/reviewofsystems. Or, you can email me at audrey@rospod.org. We’d love to hear from you, and thanks for listening.

Understanding how to return joy to practice with Christine Sinsky

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In order to make primary care better, we have to understand what is working and what isn’t – and not just in broad strokes, but in granular detail. Dr. Christine Sinsky is on the cutting edge of this type of research, and publishes prolifically on what is driving burnout in primary care, what specific steps we can take to fix it, and how to return joy to practice. Dr. Sinsky is the VP of Professional Satisfaction at the AMA and has practiced as a general internist for 30 years in Dubuque, Iowa. We talk about her landmark work with Tom Bodenheimer, which introduced the idea of the quadruple aim in 2013, how new EHR metrics can improve how we deliver care and improve the experience of caregivers and patients, and the extent of the burnout crisis in medicine at large, not just primary care. You can find the call for research that Dr. Sinksy referenced and collaborated on with Dr. Lotte Dyrbye and other leaders in this field here. We previously featured one of Dr. Sinksy’s publications, which showed that physicians spend about 2 hours doing clerical work for every 1 hour they see patients in a journal club, which you can find here.

If you enjoyed the show, please give us 5 stars wherever you listen. Tweet us your thoughts @RoSpodcast and leave us a message on our facebook page at www.facebook.com/reviewofsystems. Or, you can email me at audrey@rospod.org. We’d love to hear from you, and thanks for listening.

This interview has been lightly edited for length and clarity. Photo courtesy of Christine Sinsky.

Caring for high need, high cost patients with Jeffrey Brenner

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Jeffrey Brenner is best known for his ground-breaking work with high-need patients in Camden, New Jersey, where he founded the Camden Coalition and changed how we all think about caring for this subset of our patients. He joins us this week and talks with us about how a shooting and subsequent relationship with the Camden police led him to a physician breakfast club and then the coalition; what it was like to catapult to fame after being featured in Atul Gawande’s hotspotter article in The New Yorker; his decision to join United Health Care to continue his work caring for the most vulnerable patients; and what he thinks the future of primary care should look like.

I’d like to thank the Harvard Center for Primary Care for helping to facilitate this interview; and just a warning in case you are listening around young ears, there is some adult language in this episode.

If you enjoyed the show, please give us 5 stars wherever you listen. Tweet us your thoughts @RoSpodcast and leave us a message on our facebook page at www.facebook.com/reviewofsystems. Or, you can email me at audrey@rospod.org. We’d love to hear from you, and thanks for listening.

 This interview has been lightly edited for length and clarity. This podcast episode contains adult language. Photo courtesy Jeffrey Brenner.

Our Oral Health Crisis with Mary Otto, author of Teeth

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How many times have you treated a dental infection in your primary care office, or spent 10 minutes after a visit googling a dentist that takes your patient’s insurance? We’ve all done it too many times. There is an epidemic of dental disease in the United States – dental care is expensive and difficult to access. Mary Otto, a journalist, author, and our guest this week, has written a book called Teeth. In it, Mary explores the oral health crisis and explains its wide-reaching effects, such as decreased social mobility and fewer opportunities for employment; also, she talks about how oral health has become so segmented apart from the rest of the healthcare system and what can be done about it.

Click here to find more information about Mary Otto, winner of The Studs and Ida Terkel Award, which is dedicated to supporting authors who are committed to exploring aspects of American life that are not adequately represented by the mainstream media. You can find more information about Teeth here. You can find many of Mary’s articles here. You can find Dr. Satcher’s landmark report, Oral Health in America, here.

If you enjoyed the show, please give us 5 stars wherever you listen. Tweet us your thoughts @rospodcast and leave us a message on our facebook page at www.facebook.com/reviewofsystems. Or, you can email me at audrey@rospod.org. We’d love to hear from you, and thanks for listening.

This interview has been lightly edited for length and clarity. Images courtesy of Mary Otto.

Reprise – Journal Club: Sinsky et al, Allocation of Physician Time in Ambulatory Practice

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David Rosenthal, Thomas Kim, and Audrey Provenzano discuss the landmark study published in Annals of Internal Medicine by Sinsky and colleagues, Allocation of Physician Time in Ambulatory Practice: A Time and Motion Study in 4 Specialties.

Have you ever wondered how much time you spend each month fighting with technology or filling out VNA forms? Well, Christine Sinsky and her colleagues studied this and have some answers for us…all of which raise more fascinating questions about how we practice medicine.

Tweet us your thoughts @RoSpodcast, and send us feedback at audrey@rospod.org!